"Lipidology for Non-Cardiologists,” Wadsworth Veterans Administration Alumni Association, Los Angeles, California.
“Dietary Approaches for CVD Prevention: Matching the Diet to the Patient,” American College of Cardiology Session Chair, Chicago, Illinois.
“What is a Heart Healthy Lifestyle?” for the American Heart Association, to Tokio Marine employees, Pasadena, California.
“Inflammation and CVD: What are the Biomarkers and do they help in Decisionmaking?” 3rd Annual Orange County Symposium on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.
“Eating Healthy and Heart Disease” for the American Heart Association, to Transamerica employees, Los Angeles, California.
“Practical Tips to Control Cholesterol,” Emanuel Sigoloff Lecture Series, Veterans Administration of Greater Los Angeles, Ambulatory Care Center, Los Angeles, California.
“Practical Tips to Control Cholesterol, “ Chao Family Healthcare Conference for Chinese Americans, University of California Irvine.
“How genetic testing has changed the way I treat coronary artery disease,” Cardiology Division, Albuquerque Health Partners, Albuquerque, NM.
“Lipid Panel to Lipoprotein Subclasses and Beyond: Time for a Paradigm Shift,” St. Vincent Medical Center, Grand Rounds, Los Angeles, CA,
“Looking Beyond LDL C – The Importance of Lipid Management,” St. Vincent Medical Center, Grand Rounds, Los Angeles, CA,
“Metabolic Syndrome and the use of nicotinic acid,” St. Vincent Medical Center, Grand Rounds, Los Angeles, CA.
“The Metabolic Syndrome and Dyslipdemia,” UCLA School of Nursing, Acute Care Section.
“The Clinical Significance of the Heterogeneity of LDL and HDL Cholesterol,” Lovelace Clinic, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
“Optimizing Lipid Management in Cardiovascular Disease: The Importance of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C),” St. Vincent Medical Center, Grand Rounds, Los Angeles, CA.
M.J. Wong, oral and poster presentation, “Disorders Other than LDLC that Cause Atherosclerosis are Present in Chinese,” presented at the 9th International Conference on Health Problems Related to the Chinese in North America, Los Angeles, California, August 22, 1998.
Coronary Artery Disease
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Risk FactorsCardiovascular Risk Factors
Cholesterol (low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins, triglycerides)
High Blood Pressure or Hypertension
Angina pectoris is the medical term for chest pain or discomfort due to coronary heart disease. Angina is a symptom of a condition called myocardial ischemia. It occurs when the heart muscle (myocardium) doesn't get as much blood (hence as much oxygen) as it needs. This usually happens because one or more of the heart's arteries (blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle) is narrowed or blocked. Insufficient blood supply is called ischemia.
An aortic aneurysm is a bulge in a section of the aorta, the body's main artery. The aorta carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Because the section with the aneurysm is stretched and weakened, it can burst. If the aorta bursts, it can cause serious bleeding that can quickly lead to death.
Aneurysms can form in any section of the aorta, but they are common in the belly area (abdominal aortic aneurysm) and upper body (thoracic aortic aneurysm).
Brain damage can begin within minutes, so it is important to know the symptoms of stroke and act fast. Quick treatment can help limit damage to the brain and increase the chance of a full recovery.
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
A TIA is a "warning stroke" or "mini-stroke" that produces stroke-like symptoms but no lasting damage. TIAs occur when a blood clot temporarily clogs an artery, and part of the brain doesn't get the blood it needs. The symptoms occur rapidly and last a relatively short time. Most TIAs last less than five minutes. The average is about a minute. Unlike stroke, when a TIA is over, there's no injury to the brain. Recognizing and treating TIAs can reduce your risk of a major stroke.
Cardiovascular Risk Factors
The major risk factors are well-established. A family history of heart disease is one risk factor. Other risk factors can be controlled. Of these, the main ones are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle. Stress is also believed to raise the risk, and exertion and excitement can act as triggers for an attack.
Men 45 and older and women 55 years and older are at increased risk of heart attack. High levels of estrogen are thought to protect premenopausal women fairly well from heart attack, but the risk increases significantly after menopause.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance made in the liver and found in certain foods, such as food from animals, like dairy products (whole milk and cheese), eggs and meat. The body needs some cholesterol in order to function properly. Its cell walls, or membranes, need cholesterol in order to produce hormones, vitamin D and the bile acids that help to digest fat. But the body needs only a small amount of cholesterol to meet its needs. When too much is present, health problems such as coronary heart disease may develop.
About 65 percent of deaths among those with diabetes are attributed to heart disease and stroke.
Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism--the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced (insulin resistance).
The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes. About 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2. This form of diabetes is associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, previous history of gestational diabetes, physical inactivity, and ethnicity. About 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
Cardiovascular disease can run in families -- if you have a family history of heart disease, you may be at greater risk for heart attack, stroke, and other heart problems. The closer the relative, the greater your heart disease risk. If you have a "first-degree relative" -- that's a mother, father, sister, or brother (or even a son or daughter) who had heart disease at an early age (male relative younger than 55, female relative younger than 65), that increases your risk of developing heart disease. The more family members who have had early heart disease, the greater your risk of developing heart disease.
High Blood Pressure or Hypertension
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against blood vessel walls. The heart pumps blood into the arteries (blood vessels), which carry the blood throughout the body. High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is dangerous because it makes the heart work harder to pump blood to the body and it contributes to hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis and the development of heart failure. There are several categories of blood pressure, including:
About 30 percent of all deaths from heart disease in the U.S. are directly related to cigarette smoking. Smoking is a major cause of atherosclerosis. Among other things, the nicotine present in smoke causes:
Adapted from the WebMD, American Heart Association, Texas Heart Institute